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How to change undergraduate computing to engage and retain more women

ComputingEd - 10 hours 42 min ago

My Blog@CACM post for this month talks about the Weston et al paper (from last week), and about a new report from the Reboot Representation coalition (see their site here). The report covers what the Tech industry is doing to close the gender gap in computing and “what works” (measured both empirically and from interviews with people running programs addressing gender issues).

I liked the emphasis in the report on redesigning the experience of college students (especially female) who are majoring in computing.  Some of their emphases:

  • Work with community colleges, too.  Community colleges tend to be better with more diverse students, and it’s where about half of undergraduates start today.  If you want to attract more diverse students, that’s where to start.
  • They encourage companies to offer “significant cash awards” to colleges that are successful with diverse students. That’s a great idea — computer science departments are struggling to manage undergraduate enrollment these days, and incentives to keep an eye on diversity will likely have a big impact.
  • Grow computer science teachers and professors. I appreciated that second emphasis.  There’s a lot of push to grow K-12 CS teachers, and I think it’s working.  But there’s not a similar push to grow higher education CS teachers. That’s going to be a chokepoint for growing more CS graduates.

The report is interesting — I recommend it.

Results from Longitudinal Study of Female Persistence in CS: AP CS matters, After-school programs and Internships do not

ComputingEd - Mon, 10/14/2019 - 07:00

NCWIT has been tracking their Aspirations in Computing award applicants for several years. The Aspirations award is given to female students to recognize their success in computing. Tim Weston, Wendy DuBow, and Alexis Kaminsky have just published a paper in ACM TOCE (see link here) about their six year study with some 500 participants — and what they found led to persistence into CS in College.  The results are fascinating and somewhat surprising — read all the way to the end of the abstract copied here:

While demand for computer science and information technology skills grows, the proportion of women entering computer science (CS) fields has declined. One critical juncture is the transition from high school to college. In our study, we examined factors predicting college persistence in computer science and technology related majors from data collected from female high school students. We fielded a survey that asked about students’ interest and confidence in computing as well as their intentions to learn programming, game design, or invent new technology. The survey also asked about perceived social support from friends and family for pursuing computing as well as experiences with computing, including the CS Advanced Placement (AP) exam, out-of-school time activities such as clubs, and internships. Multinomial regression was used to predict persistence in computing and tech majors in college. Programming during high school, taking the CS Advanced Placement exam, and participation in the Aspirations awards program were the best predictors of persistence three years after the high school survey in both CS and other technology-related majors. Participation in tech-related work, internships, or after-school programs was negatively associated with persistence, and involvement with computing sub-domains of game design and inventing new applications were not associated with persistence. Our results suggest that efforts to broaden participation in computing should emphasize education in computer programming.

There’s also an article at Forbes on the study which includes recommendations on what works for helping female students to persist in computing, informed by the study (see link here). I blogged on this article for CACM here.

That AP CS is linked to persistence is something we’ve seen before, in earlier studies without the size or length of this study.  It’s nice to get that revisited here.  I’ve not seen before that high school work experience, internships, and after-school programs did not work.  The paper makes a particular emphasis on programming:

While we see some evidence for students’ involvement in computing diverging and stratifying after high school, it seems that involvement in general tech-related fields other than programming in high school does not transfer to entering and persisting in computer science in college for the girls in our sample. Understanding the centrality of programming is important to the field’s push to broaden participation in computing.  (Italics in original.)

This is an important study for informing what we do in high school CS. Programming is front-and-center if we want girls to persist in computing.  There are holes in the study.  I keep thinking of factors that I wish that they’d explored, but they didn’t — nothing about whether the students did programming activities that were personally or socially meaningful, nothing about role models, and nothing about mentoring or tutoring.  This paper makes a contribution in that we now know more than we did, but there’s still lots to figure out.





News From NSF - Tue, 10/08/2019 - 10:32

NSF Announcements
More at https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/announcements/?WT.mc_id=USNSF_51

This is an NSF News item.

NSF leads federal partners in accelerating the development of transformational, AI-powered innovation

News From NSF - Tue, 10/08/2019 - 10:12

The National Science Foundation today announced the creation of a new program that will significantly advance research in AI and accelerate the development of transformational, AI-powered innovation by allowing researchers to focus on larger-scale, longer-term research.

The National Artificial Intelligence Research Institutes program anticipates approximately $120 million in grants next year to fund planning grants and up to six research institutes in order to advance AI research and ...
More at https://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=299329&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click

This is an NSF News item.


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