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What we should be teaching kids about CS and changing our tools to get there: Ben Shapiro

ComputingEd - 13 hours 49 min ago

Ben Shapiro gave the opening keynote at VL/HCC a couple weeks ago. (See Andy Ko’s great summary of VL/HCC this year.) He shared the slides with me, and he just made a video of himself re-giving the talk.

Ben has been exploring what we need to teach kids to prepare them to create authentic applications for the world that they live in — multiple, heterogenous platforms with rich networking.  He wants kids to think about networks, failures, and communication between programs running on devices with different capabilities. Today, we talk about teaching kids variables and loops. Tomorrow (like, literally tomorrow), we should be teaching them about the realities of the digital world in which they live.

But we’re not going to do this with Scratch, Python, or Java. He’s suggesting new kinds of tools, including having young kids work with machine learning.

I recommend letting Ben change your thinking about the next things to teach in CS.


Tagged: computing education, physical computing

Georgia Tech Receives CMD-IT University Award for Retention of Minorities and Students With Disabilities in Computer Science

ComputingEd - Fri, 10/20/2017 - 07:00

I have not been directly involved in the computer science undergraduate major at Georgia Tech since “Georgia Computes!” started (and ECEP continued). Today, I teach graduate courses in the Human-Centered Computing PhD program and the undergraduate non-CS majors course Introduction to Media Computation, and only rarely teach CS undergraduates.

So, I am pleased that this award to the undergraduate program in the College of Computing mentioned things that Barb and I were part of.  The College of Computing won the award in part for Threads (I co-chaired the implementation committee), “Georgia Computes!” (which was mostly Barb and me), Project Rise Up 4 CS (which is Barb’s invention which she developed for ECEP), and our three mandatory CS classes, one of which is the Media Computation class I created. I feel like Barbara and I had a role in this.

The CMD-IT University Award decision was based on both Georgia Tech’s impressive quantitative reported results, which reflected high retention and graduation rates and qualitative reporting on their various retention program.  In particular, Georgia Tech highlighted the following four programs highlighted as directly impacting retention and graduation:

  • Threads Undergraduate Curriculum:  Students are given the opportunity to take control over their curriculum by choosing two of eight Threads to create their degree plan which gives them more than 28 different degree plans to follow. This resulted in students feeling they have more control and a better understanding of their degree plan.

  • Georgia Computes and Project Rise Up:  The two programs are spearheaded by Georgia Tech to help increase engagement in computing by broadening participation in computer science at all educational levels by underrepresented groups.  These programs increase interest in Computer Science.

  • Mandatory Introductions to Computer Science classes:  All students enrolled in Bachelor’s degree programs at Georgia Tech must take one of three computer science classes. The three programs enable students to take courses that fit their level of experience in Computer Science.

  • Travel Scholarships to Conference:  Georgia Tech provides between 40 and 120 travel scholarships to leading tech conferences with a diversity focus.  Students build networks of support and return with a feeling of renewed commitment to their degree program.

Source: Georgia Tech Receives CMD-IT University Award for Retention of Minorities and Students With Disabilities in Computer Science | Markets Insider


Tagged: GaComputes, Media Computation, Project Rise Up

How much water flows into agricultural irrigation? New study provides 18-year water use record

News From NSF - Thu, 10/19/2017 - 10:00

Irrigation for agriculture is the largest use of fresh water around the globe, but precise records and maps of when and where water is applied by farmers are difficult to locate. Now a team of researchers has discovered how to track water used in agriculture.

In a paper published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, the researchers detail their use of satellite images to produce annual maps of irrigation. The findings, the scientists said, will help farmers, water ...
More at https://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=243386&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click


This is an NSF News item.

A fresh look at fresh water: Researchers create a 50,000-lake database

News From NSF - Thu, 10/19/2017 - 10:00

Countless numbers of vacationers spent this summer enjoying lakes for swimming, fishing and boating. But are they loving these lakes to death?

The water quality of the nation's lakes is threatened not only by the things people do in and around them, but, say scientists, by less obvious factors such as agriculture and changes in climate. Because lakes are as distinct as one snowflake from another, they may respond differently to these challenges.

To better understand the ...
More at https://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=243391&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click


This is an NSF News item.

Why should we teach programming (Hint: It’s not to learn problem-solving)

ComputingEd - Wed, 10/18/2017 - 12:30

At the CS for All Consortium Tuesday, Brenda Wilkerson presented this slide.

“Our work is to open students’ minds” #CSforALLsummit #CSForAll pic.twitter.com/UNi9Jk2P9M

— Dave Frye (@drdavefrye) October 17, 2017

It says, “Computer science builds the mental discipline for breaking down problems and solving them.”  I’m a huge fan of Brenda and think she’s done fabulous work in Chicago. She is a leader in bringing CS to All. I disagree with her claim. There have been lots of studies looking for transfer from teaching programming to general problem-solving skills, and it is simply not there. I talk about these in my book, I reference the Palumbo meta-review in this blog post, and NYTimes wrote about it this last spring. Like “learning styles” and “Latin teaches thinking,” this is a persistent myth that we have no support for.

I tweeted in response to Brenda’s slide, and several CS teachers asked me, “So why teach programming or computing at all?”  It’s a great question!  Here are some of my top reasons:

  1. To understand our world. The argument that Simon Peyton Jones made in England for their computer science curriculum is that Computer Science is a science like all the others. We teach Chemistry to students because they live in a world with chemical interactions. We teach Biology because they live in a world full of living things. We teach Physics because they live in a physical world. We should teach Computer Science because they live in a digital world.
  2. To study and understand processes. Alan Perlis (first ACM Turing Award laureate) argued in 1961 that everyone on every campus should learn to program. He said that computer science is the study of process, and many disciplines need people to know about process, from managers who work on logistics, to scientists who try to understand molecular or biological processes. Programming automates process, which creates opportunities to simulate, model, and test theories about processes at scale. Perlis was prescient in predicting computational science and engineering.
  3. To be able to ask questions about the influences on their lives. C.P. Snow also argued for everyone to learn computing in 1961, but with more foreboding. He correctly predicted that computers and computing algorithms were going to control important aspects of our lives. If we don’t know anything about computing, we don’t even know how to ask about those algorithms. It shouldn’t be magic.  Even if you’re not building these algorithms, simply knowing about them gives you power. C.P. Snow argues that you need that power.
  4. To use an important new form of literacy. Alan Kay made the argument in the 1970’s that computing is a whole new medium. In fact, it’s human’s first meta-medium — it can be all other media, and it includes interactivity so that the medium can respond to the reader/user/viewer. Computing gives us a new way to express ideas, to communicate to others, and to explore ideas.  Everyone should have access to this new medium.
  5. To have a new way to learn science and mathematics. Mathematics places a critical role in understanding our world, mostly in science. Our notation for mathematics has mostly been static equations. But code is different and gives us new insights. This is what Andy diSessa has been saying for many years. Bruce Sherin, Idit Harel, Yasmin Kafai, Uri Wilensky, and others have shown us how code gives us a powerful new way to learn science and mathematics. Bootstrap explicitly teaches mathematics with computing.  Everyone who learns mathematics should also learn computing, explicitly with programming.
  6. As a job skill. The most common argument for teaching computer science in the United States is as a job skill.  The original Code.org video argued that everyone should learn programming because we have a shortage of programmers. That’s just a terrible reason to make every school child learn to program. That’s what Larry Cuban was arguing this last summer. Tax payers should not be funding a Silicon Valley jobs program. Not everyone is going to become a software developer, and it doesn’t make any sense to train everyone for a job that only some will do. But, there’s some great evidence from Chris Scaffidi (that I learned about from Andy Ko’s terrific VL/HCC summary) showing that workers (not software developers) who program make higher wages than those comparable workers who do not. Learning to program gives students new skills that have value in the economy. It’s a social justice issue if we do not make this economic opportunity available to everyone.
  7. To use computers better. This one is a possibility, but we need research to support it. Everyone uses computers all the time these days. Does knowing how the computer works lead to more effective use of the computer?  Are you less likely to make mistakes? Are you more resilient in bouncing back from errors? Can you solve computing problems (those that happen in applications or with hardware, even without programming) more easily?  I bet the answer is yes, but I don’t know the research results that support that argument.
  8. As a medium in which to learn problem-solving. Finally, computer programming is an effective medium in which we can teach problem-solving. Just learning to program doesn’t teach problem-solving skills, but you can use programming if you want to teach problem-solving. Sharon Carver showed this many years ago. She wanted students to learn debugging skills, like being able to take a map and a set of instructions, then figure out where the instructions are wrong. She taught those debugging skills by having students debug Logo programs. Students successfully transferred those debugging skills to the map task. That’s super cool from a cognitive and learning sciences perspective. But her students didn’t learn much programming — she didn’t need much programming to teach that problem solving skill.

    But here’s the big caveat: They did not learn enough programming for any of the other reasons on this list!  The evidence we have says that you can teach problem-solving with programming, but students won’t gain more than that particular skill. That is a disservice to students.

I strongly agree with Brenda’s most important point: CS for All is a social justice issue. Learning computing is so important that it is unjust to keep it from some students. Currently, CS is disproportionately unavailable to poorer students, to females, and to minority ethnic groups. We need CS for All.


Tagged: #CS4All, BPC, computational literacy, computational thinking, computing education, computing for all, computing for everyone

More Teachers, Fewer 3D Printers: How to Improve K–12 Computer Science Education 

ComputingEd - Wed, 10/18/2017 - 07:00

A nice summary of where we’re at with CS Ed in the United States, where additional funding and effort should go, and where it shouldn’t.

Addressing the teacher shortage should be the number one use for the new funds allocated by the Trump administration, says Mark Stehlik, a computer science professor at Carnegie Mellon University. A lack of qualified teachers is the biggest barrier to CS education in the U.S., he says, and he thinks the problem is going to get worse. An earlier generation of CS educators has started to retire, and he says younger CS graduates “aren’t going into education because they can make twice or more working in the software industry.”

One solution could be to expand the reach of each CS educator through online classes. But “online curricula aren’t going to save the day, especially for elementary and high school,” Stehlik says. “A motivated teacher who can inspire students and provide tailored feedback to them is the coin of the realm here.”

Where the money should not be spent? On hardware and equipment. Laptops, robots, and 3D printers are important, says Code.org’s Yongpradit, “but they don’t make a CS class. A trained teacher makes a CS class. So money should be focused on training teachers and offering robust curriculum.”

Source: More Teachers, Fewer 3D Printers: How to Improve K–12 Computer Science Education – IEEE Spectrum


Tagged: computer science teachers, computing for all, computing for everyone, K12, teachers

Community College Innovation Challenge

News From NSF - Tue, 10/17/2017 - 17:28

Many real world problems can be solved with STEM-based solutions. NSF invites teams of community college students to identify key problems and propose innovative solutions in this national contest.
More at https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/communitycollege/?WT.mc_id=USNSF_51


This is an NSF News item.

LIGO: Einstein Was Right

News From NSF - Mon, 10/16/2017 - 10:43

A century ago, Albert Einstein predicted gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of space-time that result from the universe's most violent phenomena. A hundred years later, NSF-funded researchers using the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) have detected gravitational waves.
More at https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/ligoevent/?WT.mc_id=USNSF_51


This is an NSF News item.

LIGO and Virgo make first detection of gravitational waves produced by colliding neutron stars

News From NSF - Mon, 10/16/2017 - 10:34

Watch the Press Conference live at the https://www.youtube.com/c/VideosatNSF/live website.

For the first time, scientists have directly detected gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time -- in addition to light from the spectacular collision of two neutron stars. This marks the first time that a cosmic event has been observed in both gravitational waves and light.

The discovery was ...
More at https://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=243382&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click


This is an NSF News item.

Start from where they are: Rochester Institute of Tech Opens Center Focused on ‘Computing Science for All’ 

ComputingEd - Mon, 10/16/2017 - 07:00

Paul’s last line below says it all.  If you want to teach CS to all majors, you start by looking at the computing needs in those disciplines. You don’t start by asking computing experts what they do. Bravo!

“The Golisano College embraces a vision in which the computing domain is accessible to everyone, regardless of discipline, disability or diverse background,” said Anne Haake, dean of the college, who is spearheading the launch of the center from within her college. CS professor Paul Tymann will serve as director.

“Computers have become part of the fabric of virtually every discipline, and I don’t think you can be successful in today’s society without having a basic understanding of how computing works,” said Tymann, in a press release. “That’s why we are looking to understand the computing needs of every discipline at RIT.”

Source: Rochester Institute of Tech Opens Center Focused on ‘Computing Science for All’ — Campus Technology


Tagged: computing for all, computing for everyone, undergraduate

Study says multiple factors work together to drive women away from STEM

ComputingEd - Fri, 10/13/2017 - 07:00

I wrote recently in a blog post that we don’t know enough why women aren’t going into computing, and I wrote in another blog post that CRA is finding that we lose women over the years of an undergraduate degree in CS.  Here’s an interesting study offering explanations for why we are not getting and keeping women:

The study analyzed a large, private university on the East Coast, using data from 2009-16, broken down semester-by-semester to track students’ changes in grades and majors in as close to real time as possible. While other studies have suggested that women came out of high school less prepared, or that increasing female STEM faculty could help provide women mentors, the Georgetown study didn’t support those findings.

“Women faculty don’t seem to attract more women into a field, and that was sort of sad news for us,” Kugler said. “We were hoping we could make more of a difference.”

One of the reasons women might feel undue pressure in STEM fields might actually be because of how recruiting and mentoring is framed. Many times, those efforts actually end up reinforcing the idea that STEM is for men.“Society keeps telling us that STEM fields are masculine fields, that we need to increase the participation of women in STEM fields, but that kind of sends a signal that it’s not a field for women, and it kind of works against keeping women in these fields,” Kugler said.

And while many STEM majors are male-dominated, the framing of recruitment and mentorship efforts can sometimes paint inaccurate pictures for STEM fields that aren’t male-dominated, and contribute to an inaccurate picture for STEM as a whole, the paper says:

While men may not have a natural ability advantage in STEM fields, the numerous government and other policy initiatives designed to get women interested in STEM fields may have the unintended effect of signaling to women an inherent lack of fit.

While computer science, biophysics and physics tend to be male-dominated, Kugler said, neurobiology, environmental biology and biology of global health tend to be female-dominated.

Source: Study says multiple factors work together to drive women away from STEM


Tagged: BPC, computing education, NCWIT, STEM, undergraduate education, women in computing

NSF announces $19.5M in awards to support fundamental research to advance the nation’s local cities and communities

News From NSF - Thu, 10/12/2017 - 09:59

The National Science Foundation (NSF) has long been a leader in supporting fundamental research to equip U.S. cities and communities with more responsive and adaptive technologies and services. Today, NSF's Smart & Connected Communities (S&CC) program announces its first round of awards totaling approximately $19.5 million. This funding will support 38 projects involving researchers at 34 institutions across the ...
More at https://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=243312&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click


This is an NSF News item.

Fossil discovery in Tanzania reveals ancient bobcat-sized carnivore

News From NSF - Wed, 10/11/2017 - 14:00

Paleontologists working in Tanzania have identified a new species of hyaenodont, a type of extinct meat-eating mammal. The study is published today, National Fossil Day, in the journal PLOS ONE and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

After the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago, hyaenodonts were the main predators on the African continent. The newly discovered animal is called Pakakali rukwaensis, the name derived from the ...
More at https://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=243369&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click


This is an NSF News item.

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